Scientists and the State
Domestic Structures and the International Context
An important comparative study of scientists' place in the twentieth-century state
The book examines state/scientist relations in a wide range of twentieth-century states. The chapters respond to a common conceptual framework that explores the influence of domestic and international, political and economic structures on state/scientist relations. Case studies include the United States, the former Soviet Union, Japan, Germany (from Weimar to the reunification), France, Israel, Brazil, China, and India.
The rich literature on science, technology, and society has, for the most part, ignored the systematic study of political relations between scientific communities and the state, despite the unprecedented growth of these communities in the latter part of this century. This volume is designed to fill the gap by providing a comparative framework as well as historical case studies. The recent transformation of cold war structure, the exigencies of economic conversion and competitiveness, and the new waves of scientific migration bring the timeliness of this effort into sharp relief.
The application of a unifying conceptual framework to a varied set of instances broadens the volume’s appeal to students of science, technology, and international relations, to researchers of the politics and history of science and technology, to scholars and practitioners of science policy, to natural scientists interested in the social and political context of scientific research, and to the general reader interested in the many ways in which states exploit scientific knowledge as a venue to power and wealth.
Praise / Awards
"Science is often believed to be an international enterprise, and scientific information is shared through a common set of journals; however, support and social and financial encouragement of science is national and dependent on national goals and politics. This volume makes these relations clear and will serve as a valuable reference on the subject. . . . Solingen proposes a model for state-scientist interaction that is particularly useful. . . ."
"This collection of science and technology in society case-studies, presented by leading academics, will find a market niche in the literature of this flourishing contemporary multidiscipline by addressing, possibly for the first time in such detail, the complex nature of the relationship between scientific communities and the modern state."
". . . the editor has assembled a worthwhile book, with much of interest in it. The analytical framework is provocative, and the effort to move toward serious comparative analysis is commendable."
". . . an excellent view of the variations in state-scientist relationships across political systems. . . . The book . . . should help technology transfer scholars and practitioners to have a better understanding of the domain in which scientists create new knowledge that results in new commercial applications."
1. Domestic Structures and the International Context: Toward Models of State-Scientists Interaction
Etel Solingen - 1
2. The United States: The Formation and Breakdown of the Postwar Government-Science Compact
Bruce L. R. Smith - 33
3. France: Science within the State
Frank R. Baumgartner and David Wilsford - 63
4. Japan: The Political Economy of Japanese Science: Nakasone, Physicists, and the State
Morris F. Low - 93
5. People's Republic of China: Between Autarky and Interdependence
Wendy Frieman - 127
6. The Political Economy of Soviet Science from Lenin to Gorbachev
Paul R. Josephson - 145
7. Brazil: Scientists and the State -- Evolving Models and the "Great Leap Forward"
Simon Schwartzman - 171
8. Germany: Three Models of Interaction -- Weimar, Nazi, Federal Republic
Frank R. Pfetsch - 189
9. India: The Nuclear Scientists and the State, the Nehru and Post-Nehru Years
Ashok Kapur - 209
10. The Political Economy of Science and Technology in Israel:
Mutual Interests and Common Perspectives
Gerald M. Steinberg - 231
Contributors - 257
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